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Introduction

Jorhat is a town in Jorhat district in the Indian state of Assam. Jorhat was established as the new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the decaying and declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat as the name signifies, was just a couple(Jor) of marts (Hut). From these two parallel marts namely Chowkihut and Macharhut, which lay on the eastern and the western banks of the river Bhogdoi. Jorhat today has grown into a thriving cosmopolitan town with a strong sense of character and identity. It is the best laid out town in Upper Assam with broad roads, cutting each other at right angles. The people of Jorhat are very rich in arts & culture. Jorhat has the honour to be the largest number of educated people living,among all other districts of Assam.

Jorhat, the nerve centre of the Indian tea industry, is surrounded by splendid tea gardens. Jorhat has various institutions. The world renowned Teklai Experimental Centre where research is carried out to find new varieties of tea and to determine the therapeutic effects of green tea is situated here. The Regional Research Laboratory, which is also in Jorhat, conducts investigations on plants, herbs and soil. Jorhat can serve as a base to visit a large number of places of tourist interest, such as the famous Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary which harbours the one-horned Indian rhinoceros and Majuli, the largest island on the Brahmaputra which houses numerous satras or monasteries. The Nambar Forest reserve, famous for its rejuvenating hot spring, is just 60 km from Jorhat.

Jorhat was the capital of Ahom Kings, with its renowned cultural heritage. It is the city of tea with its favourite climatic condition. Annual Tea Festival in Jorhat is an other attraction, along with Temple of Buri Gohani, British Imperial mementos. The chief attraction of Jorhat is the 776 sq km Majuli or sandy land rising out of the bed of Brahmaputra.

History

Jorhat, also known as Jorehaut, means two hats or mandis-“Macharhat” and “Chowkihat” which existed on the two different banks of the river Bhogdoi during the 18th Century, Jorhat was "The last capital of the Ahom Kingdom".This town was a flourishing and commercial metropolis but completely destroyed after a series of the Burmese Invasions since 1817 till the arrival of the British force in the year 1824.Presently, Jorhat is on its road to utopian modernization with many commercial and non commercial establishments setting foot on its soil.


The Position

The city of Jorhat is located 314 kilometers from Guwahati astride NH37. It is connected by rail, road and air with rest of the country. It is a good link between lower Assam with upper Assam as also North Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. It is the best base for tourist exploring upper assam. is located between the Brahmaputra on the north and Nagaland on the south at 26 degree 46 minute’s north latitude and 96 degree 16 minute’s longitude in the central part of Brahmaputra Valley.


The Tea Capital

Nestling on the northeastern part of Assam and along a tributary of River Brahmaputra, Jorhat is an important agricultural town for Assam. It is famous for its vast lying tea gardens and is also called the 'Tea capital of the world'. Since the time of British rule, Jorhat has been the main center for tea cultivation.Jorhat has the world renowned Toklai Experimental Centre. Research is carried out to find new varieties of tea and also therapeutic effects of green tea.


 Route to Reach

By Air
Jorhat is well connected by air, with daily flights from Guwahati, and four flights a week from Calcutta . The airport is situated 5-km out of town and can be reached by rickshaw, auto-rickshaw or Indian Airlines buses.
By Rail
Jorhat railway station is on the Farketing-Mariyani branch railway station. There are also bus services to Mariyani, the nearest mainline railway station, where two express trains run to Tinsukia, Dimapur, and Lumding.
By Road
ASTC buses run to Guwahati, Tezpur, Sibsagar, Tinsukia, Dimapur and Itanagar, Kaziranga is served by buses to Guwahati and Tezpur. Private buses are also available. Alternatively, one can take bus or taxi to reach Niyamati Ghat and cross the river by ferryboat or launch over to Majuli.

Jorhat is the most litrate district of Assam. Jorhat is considered to be a good place for ethical modern education values.Jorhat has various institutions.A Tea-Research Centre is established at 5 km away at Chinnamara. The world renowned Toklai Experimental Centre where research is carried out to find new varieties of tea and to determine the therapeutic effects of green tea is situated here. The Regional Research Laboratory, which is also in Jorhat, conducts investigations on plants, herbs and soil. The Assam Agricultural University, the Technical School, etc. also attract a number of students and researchers from all over the country.


Languages Spoken

Assamese or Asamiya is the language spoken by the natives of the state of Assam in northeast India.Some of the other languages are : , Mishing, Deori.

Places To Visit

Jorhat has the world renowned Toklai Experimental Centre. Research is carried out to find new varieties of tea and also therapeutic effects of green tea. 60 kms aways from Jorhat, lies Nambar Forest reserve which is famous for being a rejuvenating hot spring.A further 90 kms down, one comes across Dimapur (in Nagaland), once the seat of the Cachar kingdom.

The Regional Research Laboratory, which is also in Jorhat, conducts investigations on plants, herbs and soil. The Assam Agricultural University, the Technical School, etc. also attract a number of students and researchers from all over the country.

Majuli: The largest riverine island in the world, nestles in the lap of the mighty Brahmaputra. Her face uplifted to the limitless frontiers of the blue sky, her feet perpetually caressed by the lapping waters of the holy Brahamaputra, her vision stretched to the distant hills of the Himalayan and other ranges, Majuli is a creation of none other than the master craftsman who moulded the universe-God himself. Majuli island, the largest in the world, is inhabited by Deori tribals.

Bangalpukhari : On the southern side of Jorhat, near Na-ali, there is a tank popularly known as Bangalpukhari.

Thengal Bhawan : Build in 1880 by Raibahadur Shiva Prasad Barooah, the first Assamese Daily Dainik Batari was started from this complex.

Burigosain devalay: The image of Burigosain was also shifted and placed in a temple which lies in the middle of the town. It is a sakta Shrine.

Raja Maidam: The existing maidam (vault)which lies on the south bank of Toklai river on the northern side of Jorhat

Cinnamora Tea Estate : First tea garden of Assam established by Maniram Dewan in 1850.


The Satras

In Majuli, the largest island on the Brahmaputra, there are numerous satras or monasteries.
The Vaishnava Satras were founded by Sankardeva, the father of Assamese culture. The historic and auspicious 'Manikanchan Sanjog' was the first Satra in Majuli. Subsequently 65 satras grew which propagated the ethnic and sociocultural ideals. At present there are only 22 Satras in Majuli and rest have been shifted to other safer places due to flood and erosion. These Satras are the treasure house of 'Borgeet', Matiakhara, Jumora dance, Chali dance, Noyua dance, Nande Vringee, Sutradhar, Ozapali, Apsara dance, Satria Krishna dance, Dasavater dance etc. which were contributed by Shri Shanjerdeva.
Dakhinpat Satra
Dakhinpat Satra was founded by Banamalidev, an exponent of Raasleela, which is now observed as one of the State festivals of Assam.
Garamurh Satra
This Satra was founded by Lakshmikantdeva. During Autumn end traditional Raasleela is performed with great enthusiasm. Some ancient weapons are also preserved here.
Auniati Satra
Founded by Niranjan Pathakdeva, this satra is famous for 'Paalnaam' and Apsara dance and it also has considerable collection of old Assamese utensils, jewellery and handicrafts.
Kamalabari Satra
Kamalabari Satra founded by Bedulapadma Ata, is a center of art, culture, literature and classical studies. Its branch Uttar Kamalabari Satra has performed cultural programme of satria art in several states of India and abroad.
Bengenaati Satra
It is a store house of culturally important antiques and an advanced center of performing arts. Muraridev, the grand son of Shankaradeva's step mother, had founded the SSwargadeoatra. The royal robes belong to the Ahom king Swargadeo Gadadhar Singha, made of Gold and an umbrella which is also made of gold, are preserved here.

Culture & People

The cultural environment which prevails in Jorhat is the result of untiring effort of people trying to preserve its culture. Jorhat has been able to produce many creative writers, historians, journalists, etc. The cultural environment which prevails in Jorhat is the result of untiring effort of people trying to preserve its culture. Jorhat has been able to produce many creative writers, historians, journalists, etc. Jorhat is the home of internationally reputed ideologists and educationists.The variety of heterogeneity of the town population, specially its business community – comprising of Punjabis, Biharis, Marwaries, Bengalis and even odd South Indian is something commendable. Yet each person, irrespective of his place of origin, who has made Jorhat his home is staunchly loyal to his adopted home and fully identifies with it. Urban, polite and polished behavior is the distinguishing features of an average Jorhat man.The people of Jorhat are very rich in arts & culture. Jorhat has the honour to be the largest number of educated people living,among all other districts of Assam.


Conclusion

Jorhat is and has been a vibrant place and is a perfect mixture tradition and modernity. It was the hub of anti-british struggle of Assam. Before that it was the last capital of the Ahoms, the dynasty which ruled over Assam for six centuries.Covered with tea gardens on all side, and producing best tea in entire Assam, Jorhat also has some important tourist attractions like Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary and Majuli Island, the biggest riverine island in the world and is the center of Assam's Vaisnava culture. These days Jorhat is a major educational and commercial center .

 

 
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